Waste high-density polyethylene recycling process systems for mitigating plastic pollution through a sustainable design and synthesis paradigm
Funding information: Division of Chemical, Bioengineering, Environmental, and Transport Systems, Grant/Award Number: 1643244
This article addresses the sustainable design and synthesis of open-loop recycling process of waste high-density polyethylene (HDPE) under both environmental and economic criteria. We develop by far the most comprehensive superstructure for producing monomers, aromatic mixtures, and fuels from waste HDPE. The superstructure optimization problem is then formulated as a multi-objective mixed-integer nonlinear fractional programming (MINFP) problem to simultaneously optimize the unit net present value (NPV) and unit life cycle environmental impacts. A tailored global optimization algorithm integrating the inexact parametric algorithm with the branch-and-refine algorithm is applied to efficiently solve the resulting nonconvex MINFP problem. Results show that the optimal unit NPV ranges from $107.2 to $151.3 per ton of HDPE treated. Moreover, the unit life cycle greenhouse gas emissions of the most environmentally friendly HDPE recycling process are 0.40 ton CO2-eq per ton of HDPE treated, which is 63% of that of the most economically competitive process design.
|aic17127-sup-0001-Supinfo.pdfPDF document, 1.1 MB||
Data S1. Supporting Information.
Please note: The publisher is not responsible for the content or functionality of any supporting information supplied by the authors. Any queries (other than missing content) should be directed to the corresponding author for the article.
- 1, , , . Energy recovery from pyrolysis of plastic waste: study on non-recycled plastics (NRP) data as the real measure of plastic waste. Energ Conver Manage. 2017; 148: 925-934.
- 2 Plastics: Material-Specific Data. https://www.epa.gov/facts-and-figures-about-materials-waste-and-recycling/plastics-material-specific-data
- 3, . Current research trends on plastic pollution and ecological impacts on the soil ecosystem: a review. Environ Pollut. 2018; 240: 387-395.
- 4, , . Interactions of microplastic debris throughout the marine ecosystem. Nat Ecol Evol. 2017; 1(5): 116.
- 5. Plastic pollution of the world's seas and oceans as a contemporary challenge in ocean governance. Nat Commun. 2018; 9(1): 667.
- 6, , . Microplastic in aquatic ecosystems. Angew Chem Int Ed. 2017; 56(7): 1720-1739.
- 7, , . Combating plastic waste via trash to tank. Nat Rev Earth Environ. 2020; 1(3): 142-142.
- 8, , . Mechanical and chemical recycling of solid plastic waste. Waste Manag. 2017; 69: 24-58.
- 9, , , . A review on pyrolysis of plastic wastes. Energ Conver Manage. 2016; 115: 308-326.
- 10, , , , . Optimization of an appropriate technology based process for converting waste plastic in to liquid fuel via thermal decomposition. J Sustain Dev. 2017; 10(2): 116-124.
- 11, . Total generation and combustion emissions of plastic derived fuels: a trash to tank approach. Environ Prog Sustain Energy. 2019; 39(5): 1-10.
- 12, , , , , . Recent advances in the gasification of waste plastics. A critical overview. Renew Sustain Energy Rev. 2018; 82: 576-596.
- 13, . Catalytic plastics cracking for recovery of gasoline-range hydrocarbons from municipal plastic wastes. Resour Conserv Recycl. 1998; 23(3): 163-181.
- 14, . Feedstock Recycling and Pyrolysis of Waste Plastics. Chichester, England: John Wiley & Sons; 2006.
- 15, , . A life cycle assessment of mechanical and feedstock recycling options for management of plastic packaging wastes. Environ Prog. 2005; 24(2): 137-154.
- 16, , , , . Automotive shredder residue (ASR): reviewing its production from end-of-life vehicles (ELVs) and its recycling, energy or chemicals' valorisation. J Hazard Mater. 2011; 190(1–3): 8-27.
- 17, . Analysis of products derived from the fast pyrolysis of plastic waste. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 1997; 40-41: 347-363.
- 18, , , . Fast pyrolysis of plastic wastes. Energy Fuel. 1990; 4(4): 407-411.
- 19, , , , . Techno-economic evaluation of high temperature pyrolysis processes for mixed plastic waste. Chem Eng Res Des. 1998; 76(3): 427-439.
- 20, . Pyrolysis of plastic waste for production of heavy fuel substitute: a techno-economic assessment. Energy. 2018; 149: 865-874.
- 21, . Environmental impact of pyrolysis of mixed WEEE plastics part 2: life cycle assessment. Environ Sci Technol. 2011; 45(21): 9386-9392.
- 22, , , . System analyses of high-value chemicals and fuels from a waste high-density polyethylene refinery. Part 2: carbon footprint analysis and regional electricity effects. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2019; 7(22): 18267-18278.
- 23, , . Data-driven distributionally robust optimization of shale gas supply chains under uncertainty. AIChE J. 2019; 65(3): 947-963.
- 24, . Network-based life cycle optimization of the net atmospheric CO2-eq ratio (NACR) of fuels and chemicals production from biomass. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2015; 3(8): 1732-1744.
- 25, . A new superstructure optimization paradigm for process synthesis with product distribution optimization: application to an integrated shale gas processing and chemical manufacturing process. AIChE J. 2018; 64(1): 123-143.
- 26, . Recovery of valuable chemicals from high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer: a catalytic approach for plastic waste recycling. Int J Environ Sci Develop. 2012; 3(3): 263-267.
- 27, , , , . Chemical recycling of plastic wastes made from polyethylene (LDPE and HDPE) and polypropylene (PP). J Hazard Mater. 2007; 149(3): 536-542.
- 28, , , . Sustainable design of geothermal energy systems for electric power generation using life cycle optimization. AIChE J. 2020; 66(4):e16898.
- 29, , . Design of sustainable product systems and supply chains with life cycle optimization based on functional unit: general modeling framework, mixed-integer nonlinear programming algorithms and case study on hydrocarbon biofuels. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2013; 1(8): 1003-1014.
- 30, , . Catalytic flash pyrolysis of HDPE in a fluidized bed reactor for recovery of fuel-like hydrocarbons. J Anal Appl Pyrolysis. 2007; 78(2): 272-281.
- 31, , , , . Effect of the temperature in the nature and extension of the primary and secondary reactions in the thermal and HZSM-5 catalytic pyrolysis of HDPE. Appl Catal Gen. 2007; 317(2): 183-194.
- 32, , , . Effect of temperature and vapor residence time on the micropyrolysis products of waste high density polyethylene. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2018; 57(6): 1912-1923.
- 33, . Integrated hybrid life cycle assessment and optimization of shale gas. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2018; 6(2): 1803-1824.
- 34, . Global optimization for sustainable design and synthesis of algae processing network for CO2 mitigation and biofuel production using life cycle optimization. AIChE J. 2014; 60(9): 3195-3210.
- 35. Local Governments and the Municipal Solid Waste Landfill Business. Albany, NY: Office of the New York State; 2018.
- 36 Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: 2016 and 2017 Tables and Figures. Washington, D.C.: United States Environmental Protection Agency; 2019.
- 37, . Catalytic cracking of hydrocarbons over modified ZSM-5 zeolites to produce light olefins: a review. Appl Catal Gen. 2011; 398(1): 1-17.
- 38, , . Manufacturing ethylene from wet shale gas and biomass: comparative technoeconomic analysis and environmental life cycle assessment. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2018; 57(17): 5980-5998.
- 39, , . Short chain branching control on ethylene-butene copolymers. US patent 10,221,266. Inventors: U.S. Patents, assignee; 2019.
- 40, . Thermal cracking of propane. Kinetics and product distributions. Ind Eng Chem Process Des Dev. 1968; 7(3): 435-447.
- 41. Handbook of petroleum refining processes. 548. McGraw-Hill New York; 2004.
- 42. Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes. Vol 548. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2004.
- 43, , . Liquid-liquid equilibria for aromatics extraction systems with tetraethylene glycol. J Chem Eng Data. 1998; 43(1): 81-83.
- 44. Wind-to-Hydrogen Project: Electrolyzer Capital Cost Study. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); 2008.
- 45, , . Sustainable design and synthesis of hydrocarbon biorefinery via gasification pathway: integrated life cycle assessment and technoeconomic analysis with multiobjective superstructure optimization. Comput Chem Eng. 2013; 52: 55-76.
- 46, , , , . Techno-Economic Analysis of Biofuels Production Based on Gasification. Golden, CO: National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL); 2010.
- 47, , , , . Systematic study of aqueous monoethanolamine (MEA)-based CO2 capture process: techno-economic assessment of the MEA process and its improvements. Appl Energy. 2016; 165: 648-659.
- 48, . Techno-economic evaluation of a PVAm CO2-selective membrane in an IGCC power plant with CO2 capture. Fuel. 2008; 87(1): 14-24.
- 49, , . Reducing the cost of CO2 capture from flue gases using pressure swing adsorption. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2008; 47(14): 4883-4890.
- 50, . Handbook on Life Cycle Assessment: Operational Guide to the ISO Standards. Vol 7. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Science & Business Media; 2002.
- 51, . Sustainable design and synthesis of energy systems. Curr Opin Chem Eng. 2015; 10: 77-86.
- 52, . Value-added chemicals from microalgae: greener, more economical, or both? ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2015; 3(1): 82-96.
- 53, , . Poultry waste valorization via pyrolysis technologies: economic and environmental life cycle optimization for sustainable bioenergy systems. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2020; 8(11): 4633-4646.
- 54, . Economic and environmental life cycle optimization of noncooperative supply chains and product systems: modeling framework, mixed-integer Bilevel fractional programming algorithm, and shale gas application. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2017; 5(4): 3362-3381.
- 55, . Consequential life cycle optimization: general conceptual framework and application to algal renewable diesel production. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2017; 5(7): 5887-5911.
- 56 Aspen HYSYS. Aspen HYSYS Customization Guide. Burlington, MA: Aspen Technology; 2010.
- 57 ecoinvent V3.6. https://v36.ecoquery.ecoinvent.org/
- 58, , . Recycling of plastic: accounting of greenhouse gases and global warming contributions. Waste Manag Res. 2009; 27(8): 763-772.
- 59. LCA of plastic waste recovery into recycled materials, energy and fuels in Singapore. Resour Conserv Recycl. 2019; 145: 67-77.
- 60, , . IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis Ipcc Ar5. Vol 5. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom, and New York, NY, USA; 2013: 31-39.
- 61, , , , , . A Life Cycle Impact Assessment Method Which Comprises Harmonised Category Indicators at the Midpoint and the Endpoint Level. The Hague, the Netherlands: Ministry of VROM. ReCiPe; 2009.
- 62, , , , , . ReCiPe 2008. A Life Cycle Impact Assessment Method which Comprises Harmonised Category Indicators at the Midpoint and the Endpoint Level. Vol 1. Netherlands; 2009: 1-126.
- 63, , . Optimal design and operation of static energy polygeneration systems. Ind Eng Chem Res. 2011; 50(9): 5099-5113.
- 64, . Globally convergent exact and inexact parametric algorithms for solving large-scale mixed-integer fractional programs and applications in process systems engineering. Comput Chem Eng. 2014; 61: 90-101.
- 65, . Stochastic inventory management for tactical process planning under uncertainties: MINLP models and algorithms. AIChE J. 2011; 57(5): 1250-1277.
- 66. Improved linear integer programming formulations of nonlinear integer problems. Manag Sci. 1975; 22(4): 455-460.
- 67. Brightmark Energy Narrows Site Search for Next Advanced Plastic Recycling Plant. 2020; https://www.plasticstoday.com/recycling/brightmark-energy-narrows-site-search-next-advanced-plastic-recycling-plant/35082194462817. Accessed April 13, 2020.
- 68 AFPM United States Refining and Storage Capacity Report. 2019; https://www.afpm.org/system/files/attachments/AFPM-Capacity-Report-2019.pdf. Accessed August 2019.
- 69 American Liberty Petroleum Corporation. Announces Foreland Refining's Crude Oil Purchase Contract For All Production from Gabbs Oil Field. https://www.businesswire.com/news/home/20120424006140/en/American-Liberty-Petroleum-Corp.-Announces-Foreland-Refinings-Crude-Oil-Purchase-Contract-For-All-Production-from-Gabbs-Oil. Accessed April 2012.
- 70 Aspen Plus A. V10.0. Burlington, MA: Aspen Technology; 2017.
- 71 Aspentech AP. V10. Aspen Properties V10; Aspen Process Economic Analyzer V10. 2017.
- 72, , , et al. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbon Fuels: Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil Pathway. Richland, WA: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); 2013.
- 73, , , et al. Technical and economic feasibility of centralized facilities for solar hydrogen production via photocatalysis and photoelectrochemistry. Energ Environ Sci. 2013; 6(7): 1983-2002.
- 74 GAMS - A User's Guide. Washington, D.C.: GAMS Development Corporation; 2016.
- 75, . A polyhedral branch-and-cut approach to global optimization. Math Program. 2005; 103(2): 225-249.
- 76, , , et al. The Scip Optimization Suite. Vol 3. Berlin, Germany: Zuse Institute; 2016: 2.
- 77, . Resilient design and operations of process systems: nonlinear adaptive robust optimization model and algorithm for resilience analysis and enhancement. Comput Chem Eng. 2018; 116: 231-252.
- 78, , , . System analyses of high-value chemicals and fuels from a waste high-density polyethylene refinery. Part 1: conceptual design and techno-economic assessment. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2019; 7(22): 18254-18266.
- 79, . SLFP: a stochastic linear fractional programming approach for sustainable waste management. Waste Manag. 2011; 31(12): 2612-2619.
- 80, , . Equipment Costs - Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers. New York, NY: Mc Graw Hill; 2002.
- 81, , . Production of hydrocarbon fuel using two-step torrefaction and fast pyrolysis of pine. Part 1: techno-economic analysis. ACS Sustain Chem Eng. 2017; 5(6): 4529-4540.